A person’s health, appearance, personality and abilities are determined by the interaction of his genetic structure and his environment. Genes are the smallest building blocks, consisting of DNA sequences, located on chromosomes and carrying characteristics passed down to us from our family. A person’s genes create his potential, and his environment helps to limit or reveal this potential. For example, the use of certain medications, infections, malnutrition and cancer result in different results depending on the genetic potential of the person. In addition, revealing one of the genetic diseases in a person among family members may pose a risk for other members of the family, so screening is required for people with blood ties.
Genetics in Oncology
The genetic background in cancer is responsible for about %10, it is known that it is dependent on multiple factors (as a result of the mutual interaction of genetic and environmental factors). Especially aging, getting away from natural environments, not consuming natural foods, consuming genetically modified foods, consuming too much alcohol, smoking, electromagnetic environments, important traumas and stress in life affect.
Tumor Suppressive Genes
These are protective genes. They are good masters of the body, immediately repair the damaged place. These genes normally limit cell division rate, repair damaged DNA, and control cell death. When these genes mutate, cells continue to grow and eventually a tumor will form. Nearly 30 tumor suppressor genes including BRCA1, BRCA2 (breast cancer), and p53 genes have been identified. In about 50% of all cancer cases, the p53 gene is either missing or damaged. This important gene must be examined.
These are genes that transform a healthy cell into a cancerous cell. These are also the bad masters of our body. HER2 / neu (breast cancer) and Ras are the two most common oncogenes.
DNA Repair Genes
It repairs errors that occur during DNA replication. Unrepaired mistakes lead to mutation and eventually cancer develops. Cancer develops as a result of mutations in various genes, but most cancers are not associated with a particular type of gene. Today; It has been determined that 10% of breast, ovarian (ovarian), large intestine (colon) and uterine cancers are caused by known genetic mutations. There are more than 900 genetic tests that can be applied to breast, ovarian, colon and other rare cancers with certain genes, other genes or environmental factors.
Genetic Tests In Cancer
Most genetic tests help predict the likelihood of developing cancer at any point in life. There is no known genetic test that indicates that a person will develop cancer 100%, but these tests may indicate people at higher risk of developing cancer than the rest of the population. We cannot say that all genes associated with cancer will cause cancer; For example, 75% of women who have the gene for developing breast cancer remain healthy; Breast cancer occurs in only 25%.
The risk of developing cancer is high in individuals whose family members are diagnosed with cancer at a young age, those who have a history of the same type of cancer in three or more generations, those who have more than three cancer cases from their mother or father’s side, and those who have two or more different types of cancer in one of their family members.
ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology); It is recommended that genetic tests should be performed in cases where genetic tests will help diagnosis and treatment by interpreting the genetic status sufficiently in patients with a suspected genetic cancer in their family history or personal history.
Genetic Counseling: Genetic tests will help to understand the cause of cancer, whether there is a risk of developing cancer in the future and / or whether the cancer will be passed on to your child. Having these tests depends on a personal decision made in cooperation with your family members and your doctor.
By having these tests done, if the risk of developing cancer is high, to reduce the risk of cancer development by passing more frequent screening tests, avoiding certain risk factors, changing your lifestyle,